humoral innate immunity pattern recognition molecules

. The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Of 1 2  PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively.
MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS CoV in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL  locus were associated with disease joplink SARS-CoV-2 N Antibody severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID 19, a finding with translational implications.

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis With Various Doses of Hydroxychloroquine Among Healthcare Personnel With High-Risk Exposure to COVID 19: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Objective This trial aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with various hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) doses against a placebo among healthcare personnel (HCP) with high-risk exposure to coronavirus disease . Methods A phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted including <em>2</em>00 subjects with no active or past severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus <em>2</em> infection antibody testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were taken at the time of enrollment).
Subjects of experimental groups one to three received HCQ in various doses and the control group received a placebo. The study outcomes in terms of safety and efficacy were monitored. Participants exhibiting COVID 19 symptoms were tested for SARS CoV 2 during the study and by the end of week 1 with RT-PCR or serology testing  testing). Results Out of the total participants, 146 reported exposure to a confirmed COVID use in the first month, and 19 2  were exposed by week 1 2of the study.
Moreover, the precautionary use of personal protective equipment (PPE) significantly varied; initially more than 80% of the exposed HCPs were not ensuring PPE being used by the patients treated by them, which gradually developed over time. Mild treatment-related side effects were observed among the interventional and placebo arm patients. There was no significant clinical benefit of PrEP with HCQ as compared to placebo (p>0.05). Conclusion It is concluded that the PrEP HCQ does not significantly prevent <em>COVID 19 among high-risk HCPs.

Pan-SARS neutralizing responses after third boost vaccination in non-human primate immunogenicity model

The emergence of variants, especially Beta and Delta, has raised concerns about the reduced protection from previous infection or vaccination based on the original Wuhan-Hu-1 (D614) virus. To identify promising regimens for inducing neutralizing titers towards new variants, we evaluated monovalent and bivalent mRNA vaccines either as primary vaccination or as a booster in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Two mRNA vaccines, D614-based MRT5500 and Beta-based MRT5500β, tested in sequential regimens or as a bivalent combination in naïve NHPs produced modest neutralizing titers to heterologous variants.
However, when mRNA vaccines were administered as a booster to pre-immune NHPs, we observed a robust increase in neutralizing titers with expanded breadth towards all tested variants, and notably SARS CoV-1. The breadth of the neutralizing response was independent of vaccine sequence or modality, as we further showed either MRT5500 or recombinant subunit Spike protein (with adjuvant) can serve as boosters to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies in the NHPs primed with MRT5500. The data support the notion that a third vaccination is key to boosting existing titers and improving the breadth of <em>antibodies</em> to address variants of concern, including those with an E484K mutation in the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) (Beta, Gamma).

Pan-SARS neutralizing responses after third boost vaccination in non-human primate immunogenicity model

specially Beta and Delta, has raised concerns about the reduced protection from previous infection or vaccination based on the original Wuhan-Hu-1 (D614) virus. To identify promising regimens for inducing neutralizing titers towards new variants, we evaluated monovalent and bivalent mRNA vaccines either as primary vaccination or as a booster in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Two mRNA vaccines, D614-based MRT5500 and Beta-based MRT5500β, tested in sequential regimens or as a bivalent combination in naïve NHPs produced modest neutralizing titers to heterologous variants.

However, when mRNA vaccines were administered as a booster to pre-immune NHPs, we observed a robust increase in neutralizing titers with expanded breadth towards all tested variants, and notably SARS CoV-1. The breadth of the neutralizing response was independent of vaccine sequence or modality, as we further showed either MRT5500 or recombinant subunit Spike protein (with adjuvant) can serve as boosters to induce broadly neutralizing <em>antibodies</em> in the NHPs primed with MRT5500. The data support the notion that a third vaccination is key to boosting existing titers and improving the breadth of antibodies to address variants of concern, including those with an E484K mutation in the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) (Beta, Gamma).

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood donors during the third wave of infection in Campeche Mexico

At the end of 2020 and previous to the second wave of COVID-19 in Mexico, the seroprevalence in unvaccinated people in the state of Campeche, Mexico was below 15 %. The prevalence changes with ongoing pandemic and per geographical areas. Blood donors screening is a powerful and cost-effective alternative to monitor the population’s infection exposure. The aim of the study was to estimate IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in the Campeche’s main blood bank in Mexico.
This was a cross-sectional study carried out at the main blood bank of the State of Campeche, located in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico for the period of August through September 2021 during the third wave of the epidemic. A blood sample from 479 blood donors was included in the study, the overall seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 69.1 %. Vaccinated donors represented 69.9 % versus 29.4 % unvaccinated. The seropositivity in unvaccinated represented 42.5 % and 81.17 % in vaccinated. The seroconversion in vaccinated donors after first shot was 79 % for Astra-Zeneca-vaccine and 90 % for Pfizer-vaccine. In conclusion 69.1 % of blood donors are seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 and 42.5 percent unvaccinated people are already also seropositive.

Deciphering the contributions of neuroinflammation to neurodegeneration: lessons from antibody-mediated encephalitis and coronavirus disease 2019

Does neuroinflammation promote neurodegeneration? Does neurodegeneration promote neuroinflammation? Or, is the answer to both questions, yes? These questions have proven challenging to answer in patients with typical age-related neurodegenerative diseases in whom the onset of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are largely unknown. Patients recovering from diseases associated with abrupt-onset neuroinflammation, including rare forms of antibody mediated encephalitis (AME) and common complications of novel coronavirus disease 2019, provide a unique opportunity to untangle the relationship between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

Persistent cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized in patients recovering from AME or COVID 19, yet the drivers of impairment remain largely unknown. Clinical observations, neuroimaging and biofluid biomarkers, and pathological studies imply a link between the severity of acute neuroinflammation, subsequent neurodegeneration, and disease-associated morbidity.

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody

50 µg 480 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.02 mg 171.82 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.1 mg 436.42 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.02 mg 171.82 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.1 mg 436.42 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.02 mg 171.82 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.1 mg 436.42 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.02 mg 171.82 EUR

SARS-CoV Spike Antibody

0.1 mg 436.42 EUR

SARS-CoV Matrix Antibody

0.02 mg 171.82 EUR

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